Microsatellite and Mitochondrial Diversity Analysis of Native Pigs of Indo-Burma Biodiversity Hotspot

<p>Assessment of genetic diversity in indigenous animals is an important and essential task for animal genetic improvement studies as well as conservation decision-making. The genetic diversity and evolutionary relationships among geographically and phenotypically distinct three pig breeds/types native to Indo-Burma and Eastern Himalayan global biodiversity hotspots were determined by genotyping with a panel of 22 ISAG recommended microsatellite loci as well as sequencing partial <i>MTRNR1</i>gene. The mean number of alleles per locus, effective number of alleles and observed heterozygosity were found to be 11.27 ± 0.85, 5.29 ± 0.34, and 0.795 ± 0.01, respectively. The moderate <i>F</i><sub>ST</sub> value (0.115 ± 0.01) indicated a fair degree of genetic differentiation among the native breeds. The Nei’s unbiased genetic identity estimates indicated less genetic distance (0.2909) between Niang Megha and Tenyi Vo pigs than the both individually with Ghoongroo breed. The divergence time was also estimated from the microsatellite analysis. Analysis of <i>MTRNR1</i>gene revealed distinct clustering of native Indian pigs with Chinese pigs over European pigs. The study revealed the abundance of genetic variation within native Indian pigs and their relationships as well as genetic distances.</p>