Metabolomic Assessment of the Effect of Dietary Cholesterol in the Progressive Development of Fatty Liver Disease
2010-05-07T00:00:00Z (GMT) by
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease is considered to be the hepatic manifestation of metabolic syndrome and is usually related to high-fat, high-cholesterol diets. With the rationale that the identification and quantification of metabolites in different metabolic pathways may facilitate the discovery of clinically accessible biomarkers, we report the use of <sup>1</sup>H NMR metabolomics for quantitative profiling of liver extracts from LDLr<sup>−/−</sup> mice, a well-documented mouse model of fatty liver disease. A total of 55 metabolites were identified, and multivariate analyses in a diet- and time-comparative strategy were performed. Dietary cholesterol increased the hepatic concentrations of cholesterol, triglycerides, and oleic acid but also decreased the [PUFA/MUFA] ratio as well as the relative amount of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids in the liver. This was also accompanied by variations of the hepatic concentration of taurine, glutathione, methionine, and carnitine. Heat-map correlation analyses demonstrated that hepatic inflammation and development of steatosis correlated with cholesterol and triglyceride NMR derived signals, respectively. We conclude that dietary cholesterol is a causal factor in the development of both liver steatosis and hepatic inflammation.