Metabolic disorders and cardiovascular risk in people living with HIV/AIDS without the use of antiretroviral therapy

<div><p>Abstract INTRODUCTION: Metabolic disorders in people living with HIV/AIDS (PLH) have been described even before the introduction of antiretroviral (ARV) drugs in the treatment of HIV infection and are risk factors for cardiovascular diseases. Based on this, the purpose of this study was to assess metabolic disorders and cardiovascular risk in PLH before the initiation of antiretroviral treatment (ART). METHODS: This was a cross-sectional descriptive study of 87 PLH without the use of ART, which was carried out between January and September 2012 at a specialized infectious diseases center in Minas Gerais, Brazil. RESULTS: The main metabolic disorders in the population were low serum levels of HDL-cholesterol, hypertriglyceridemia and abdominal obesity. Dyslipidemia was prevalent in 62.6% of the study population, whereas metabolic syndrome (MS) was prevalent in 11.5% of patients assessed by the International Diabetes Federation (IDF) criteria and 10.8% assessed by the National Cholesterol Education Program-Adult Treatment Panel (NCEP-ATPIII) criteria. Regarding cardiovascular risk, 89.7% of the population presented a low coronary risk according to the Framingham Risk Score. A greater proportion of patients diagnosed with MS presented low cardiovascular risk (80% assessed by IDF criteria and 77.8% assessed by NCEP-ATPIII criteria). CONCLUSIONS: Metabolic disorders in this population may be due to HIV infection or lifestyle (smoking, sedentary lifestyle and inadequate diet). The introduction of ART can enhance dyslipidemia, increasing cardiovascular risk, especially among those who have classic risks of cardiovascular disease.</p></div>