Men and suicide prevention: a scoping review

<p><i>Background</i>: Male suicide rates are higher than their female counterparts in almost every country around the world. Several developed countries have attempted to implement suicide prevention programmes, but few have specifically targeted men.</p> <p><i>Aims</i>: To identify what is currently known about suicide prevention strategies, programmes, and interventions of relevance to men.</p> <p><i>Method</i>: A scoping review guided by Arksey and O'Malley’s five-stage framework.</p> <p><i>Results</i>: Twenty-two studies were included. Thematic analysis identified three categories: (i) male suicide prevention interventions; (ii) factors or coping strategies that interrupt the suicidal process in men; (iii) men’s perspectives on service provision. Interventions included awareness campaigns; training of community “gatekeepers”; psychological support; and educational initiatives targeted to either GPs or depressed or suicidal men. Men emphasised the need to receive support from a trusted and respected individual, preferably in an informal setting. Connecting with others, reframing help-seeking as masculine, and the use of emotional regulation techniques were all identified as factors with potential to interrupt the suicidal process.</p> <p><i>Conclusions</i>: This review demonstrates the need for further research examining the perspectives of suicidal middle-aged men and their close family and friends.</p>