Mechanisms involved in hearing disorders of thyroid ontogeny: a literature review

<div><p>ABSTRACT Endocochlear, retrocochlear and/or central origin hearing damage may be related to the absence of appropriate levels of thyroid hormone during morphogenesis and/or auditory system development. Hearing disorders related to the thyroid are not well studied, despite speculation on the pathophysiological mechanisms. The objective of this review was to characterize the main pathophysiological mechanisms of congenital hypothyroidism and to evaluate the relationship with central and peripheral hearing disorders. We conducted a literature review using the databases MedLine, LILACS, Cochrane Library, SciELO, Institute for Scientific Information (ISI), Embase, and Science Direct between July and September on 2016. We identified the studies that address hearing disorder mechanisms on the congenital hypothyroidism. Congenital hypothyroidism may have clinical and subclinical manifestations that affect the auditory system and may be a potential risk factor for hearing impairment. Hearing impairment can severely impact quality-of-life, which emphasizes the importance of monitoring and evaluating hearing during the clinical routine of these patients.</p></div>