Mean F0 in responses the three targets.

Mean F0 estimated for participants with varying degrees of dominance (Low dominance = 10th percentile; High dominance = 90% percentile. Neutral target: white bars; dominant target: light grey bars; prestigious target: dark grey bars. † represents a main effect of target. For panned contrasts (Table 3), shapes above the bars represent a significant difference between responses to neutral versus high-status targets (dominant and prestigious). *p < .05, **p < .01. Bars represent estimated marginal means ± 1 s.e.m. Straight lines represent linear regressions for responses to each type of target, from which marginal means are estimated (neutral: dotted line; dominant: dashed line; prestigious: solid line). In all cases, F0 values were standardised (to z scores) for each participant to make results equivalent and account for between-subject differences.