MOESM4 of Blocking ERK1/2 signaling impairs TGF-β1 tumor promoting function but enhances its tumor suppressing role in intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma cells

Additional file 4. Role of ERK1/2 activation in h-TGF-β1 anti-proliferative activity of HuCCA-1 cell line. Cells were treated with 5 ng/mL and 200 cells seeded on 24-well plate were treated with h-TGF-β1 with or without U0126 in 10% FBS media for 7 days. Colony formation ability was quantified as percent ± SEM of crystal violet-stained area compared to control. *P value < 0.05, ** P value < 0.001.