Large metropolitan water demand forecasting using DAN2, FTDNN, and KNN models: A case study of the city of Tehran, Iran
Efficient operation of urban water systems necessitates accurate water demand forecasting. We present daily, weekly, and monthly water demand forecasting using dynamic artificial neural network (DAN2), focused time-delay neural network (FTDNN), and K-nearest neighbor (KNN) models for the city of Tehran. The daily model investigates whether partitioning weekdays into weekends and non-weekends can improve forecast results; it did not. The weekly model yielded good results by using the summation of the daily forecast values into their corresponding weeks. The monthly results showed that partitioning the year into high and low seasons can improve forecast accuracy. All three models offer very good results for water demand forecasting. DAN2, the best model, yielded forecasting accuracies of 96%, 99%, and 98%, for daily, weekly, and monthly models respectively.