Influence of the Additives on Clouding of Non-Ionic Surfactant Triton X-114 Solutions: Evaluation of Thermodynamics at the CP

<div><p>In the present work, we report the influence of the additives (e.g., electrolytes, sugars, amino acids, vitamin, etc.) on the cloud point (CP) of non-ionic surfactant Triton X-114 in aqueous solutions. In the absence of any added additives, the CP of Triton X-114 showed a concentration dependent variation (i.e., the CP of pure Triton X-114 is concentration dependent). A decrease/increase in the CP values was observed with the addition of the additives. The results are discussed by taking into consideration the nature of the additives and their micellar growth. The clouding components release their solvated water and separate out from the solution. Therefore, the CP of an amphiphile can be considered as the limit of its solubility. We have evaluated the various thermodynamic parameters of the surfactant (Triton X-114) molecule at the CP in the absence and presence of the additives. Furthermore, for a better understanding of the mechanism of clouding of the surfactant + additive systems in water, dye solubilization studies also performed.</p></div>