Inflammation–coagulation response and thrombotic effects induced by silica nanoparticles in zebrafish embryos

<p>Nowadays, nanotechnology environmental health and safety (nanoEHS) is gaining attention. We previously found that silica nanoparticles (SiNPs) could induce vascular endothelial damage. However, the subsequent toxicologic response to SiNPs-induced endothelial damage was still largely unknown. In this study, we explored the inflammation–coagulation response and thrombotic effects of SiNPs in endothelial cells and zebrafish embryos. For <i>in vitro</i> study, swollen mitochondria and autophagosome were observed in ultrastructural analysis. The cytoskeleton organization was disrupted by SiNPs in vascular endothelial cells. The release of proinflammatory and procoagulant cytokines including IL-6, IL-8, MCP-1, PECAM-1, TF and vWF, were markedly elevated in a dose-dependent manner. For <i>in vivo</i> study, based on the NOAEL for dosimetry selection, and using two transgenic zebrafish, Tg(mpo:GFP) and Tg(fli-1:EGFP), SiNPs-induced neutrophil-mediated inflammation and impaired vascular endothelial cells. With the dosage higher than NOAEL, SiNPs significantly decreased blood flow and velocity, exhibiting a blood hypercoagulable state in zebrafish embryos. The thrombotic effect was assessed by <i>o</i>-dianisidine staining, showed that an increasing of erythrocyte aggregation occurred in SiNPs-treated zebrafish. Microarray analysis was used to screen the possible genes for inflammation–coagulation response to SiNPs in zebrafish, and the JAK1/TF signaling pathway was further verified by qRT-PCR and Western blot assays. For in-deepth study, <i>il6st</i> was knocked down with specific morpholinos. The whole-mount <i>in situ</i> hybridization and qRT-PCR analysis showed that the expression <i>jak1</i> and <i>f3b</i> were attenuated in <i>il6st</i> knockdown groups. In summary, our data demonstrated that SiNPs could induce inflammation–coagulation response and thrombotic effects via JAK1/TF signaling pathway.</p>