In situ effect of titanium tetrafluoride varnish on enamel demineralization

<div><p>Abstract The effect of a 4% titanium tetrafluoride (TiF 4 ) varnish on enamel demineralization was evaluated. Twelve volunteers participated in this double-blind, randomized crossover study. Six enamel specimens were positioned in intraoral appliances throughout four treatment stages: 4% TiF 4 varnish (experimental varnish), 5% sodium fluoride (NaF) varnish (Duraphat ® ), placebo varnish, and negative control (deionized water). After 24 h, the varnishes were removed and plaques were allowed to accumulate. A 20% sucrose solution was dripped onto enamel blocks (10x/day). Enamel alterations were analyzed by surface microhardness (SMH), percentage of surface loss (%SML), cross-sectional microhardness (CSMH), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry (EDS). Student’s paired t-test was used for SMH analysis and repeated-measures analysis of variance (ANOVA) for %SML and CSMH (∆Z) analyses (p-value=0.05). The TiF 4 varnish group had lower %SML than the placebo and control groups (p=0.044 and p=0.003, respectively), thus showing its capacity to inhibit surface demineralization. TiF 4 and NaF varnishes demonstrated a protective effect against mineral loss on the enamel subsurface. Both were statistically different from the control group when CSMH was analyzed (p=0.000). A titanium dioxide film was observed on enamel surfaces of the TiF 4 group SEM images. EDS confirmed the presence of titanium in all TiF 4 samples. The 4% TiF 4 varnish is a promising compound capable of reacting with enamel to protect it against surface and subsurface demineralization.</p></div>