Image_1_Superior Frontal Sulcus Focal Cortical Dysplasia Type II: An MRI, PET, and Quantified SEEG Study.TIF

Purpose: The superior frontal sulcus (SFS), located in the prefrontal and premotor cortex, is considered as one of the common locations of focal cortical dysplasia (FCD). However, the characteristics of seizures arising from this area are incompletely known. The primary purpose of this study was to investigate the clinical features and the epileptic networks of seizures originating from the SFS.

Methods: We included seventeen patients with type II FCD within the SFS. SFS was identified both visually and automatically. Semiological features were evaluated and grouped. Interictal 18FDG-PET imaging in all patients was compared to controls using statistical parametric mapping (SPM-PET). In those subjects with stereoelectroencephalography (SEEG), two different quantitative intracranial electroencephalography analyses were applied. Finally, the locations of the SFS-related hypometabolic regions and epileptogenic zones (EZs) were transformed into standard space for group analysis.

Results: We identified two semiological groups. Group 1 (9/17) showed elementary motor signs (head version and tonic posturing), while group 2 (8/17) exhibited complex motor behavior (fear, hypermotor, and ictal pouting). Based on SPM-PET, an SFS-supplementary motor area (SMA) epileptic propagation network was found in group 1, and an SFS-middle cingulate cortex (MCC)-pregenual anterior cingulate cortex (pACC) propagation network was discovered in group 2. Intracranial EEG analysis suggested similar affected structures with high epileptogenicity. The SFS-related hypometabolic regions and EZs in these groups showed a posterior-anterior spatial relationship.

Conclusions: Even though originating from the spatially restricted cortex, SFS seizures can be divided into two groups based on semiological features. The SFS-SMA and SFS-MCC-pACC epileptic propagation networks may play pivotal roles in the generation of different semiologies. The posterior-anterior spatial relationship of both hypometabolic regions and EZs provides potentially useful information for distinguishing different types of SFS seizures and surgical evaluation.