Identifying Coordination Geometries of Metal Aquaions in Water: Application to the Case of Lanthanoid and Actinoid Hydrates

The angular distribution function (ADF) associated with the oxygen–metal ion-oxygen angle (OMO) of several trivalent lanthanoid and actinoid aquaions has been used to identify the most probable coordination geometry of these aquaions in aqueous solutions. The ADFs extracted from the molecular dynamics trajectories have been compared with continuous distribution functions corresponding to the geometry of a reference polyhedron pattern. The procedure incorporates specific quantum-mechanical information on the aquaion under study. The new method is applied to the analysis of four M­(H2O)n3+ aquaions in water, M = Lu and Cf for n = 8, and M = La and Ac for n = 9. For those that are 8-coordinated, the square antiprism (SA) coordination geometry is preferred. For the 9-fold coordination, the simulation ADFs are more similar to the continuous ADF derived from a Gyro-elongated-SA rather than to the usually proposed trigonal tricapped prism. Advantages of these continuous distributions with respect to the usually employed discrete distributions are emphasized as well as further applications are suggested.