Hydrogen peroxide and chlorine dioxide against parasite Ichthyophthirius multifiliis (Protozoa, Ciliophora) in jundiá fingerlings
ABSTRACT: Ichthyophthiriasis is a worldwide fish disease with great financial impact on freshwater fish farming due to its associated high mortality rates. Current study assesses the parasiticidal capacity of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and chlorine dioxide (ClO2) against the causative agent, Ichthyophthirius multifiliis, in jundiá. Median lethal concentration (LC50, 96h) of each chemical agent was established, as well as the minimum inhibitory concentration of hydrogen peroxide for the parasite´s infectious larval phase (theront). Products were tested asynchronously in parasitized fingerlings for short and long baths at the following concentrations and exposure times: 1. Hydrogen peroxide: (T1) continuous bath - 30ppm and (T2) 50ppm; (T3) short bath - 150ppm, during 1h and (T4) 250ppm during 1h; control group (without any chemical agent). 2. Chlorine dioxide: (T1) continuous bath - 4ppm and (T2) 20ppm; (T3) short bath - 200ppm, during 1min; (T4) short bath - 400ppm, during 1min and control group. Data analysis demonstrated a concentration of 82.54ppm of the commercial product (or 24.76ppm of the active chemical agent) as LC50, 96h of H2O2 and 38.4ppm product (or 2.68ppm of the active chemical agent) for ClO2. Hydrogen peroxide concentration causing 100% mortality rate of theronts in 1h was 25ppm (product, or 7.5ppm of the active chemical agent). At the end of the fourth day of curative experiment, 98% of the animals died by ichthyophthiriasis. No treatment was effective against the parasite.