HIV-1 infection of gut Th17 cells.

<p>(A-B) Relative TF HIV-1 susceptibility of Th17 versus Th1 cells. LPMCs were infected with HIV-1 CH040.c and (A) the percentage of intracellular p24+ cells were evaluated by flow cytometry in IL17 versus IFNγ producing cells at 4 dpi. (B) Data were analyzed using 2-tailed paired Student’s t test; **, <i>p</i><0.01; *, <i>p</i><0.05. (C-D) Expression of Th17 differentiation genes. Polarization of blood Th0 cells into Th17 cells was associated with (C) gene upregulation (n = 20 genes) and (D) gene downregulation (n = 18 genes) [<a href="http://www.plospathogens.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.ppat.1006226#ppat.1006226.ref042" target="_blank">42</a>]. These gene lists were extracted from [<a href="http://www.plospathogens.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.ppat.1006226#ppat.1006226.ref042" target="_blank">42</a>] and subjected to GSEA. (C) Upregulated Th17 genes were induced (NOM = 1.54, <i>p</i> = 0.05) in microbe-exposed gut CD4+ T cells. (D) By contrast, downregulated Th17 genes, including RNAses 2, 3 and 6 (in red), were not significantly perturbed (<i>p</i>>0.05). Higher color intensities indicate higher magnitudes of expression changes.</p>