Gold(I)-Promoted Heterocyclization of Internal Alkynes: A Comparative Study of Direct Metallate <i>5‑endo-dig</i> Cyclization versus a Stepwise Cyclization

2014-06-20T00:00:00Z (GMT) by Jonathan M. French Steven T. Diver
With cationic gold catalysts, internal alkynes bearing both propargylic acyloxy groups and tosylamide pronucleophiles were found to cyclize to give either five- or six-membered ring nitrogen heterocycles. A wide variety of gold catalysts, counterions, and solvents were examined to elucidate their effect on product distribution. In most cases, the direct 5-<i>endo</i>-dig cyclization was found to be the major pathway leading to good yields of dehydropyrrolidine products. Alkyne substrates bearing additional normal alkyl substituents at the propargylic position gave dehydropiperidines as the major product. This pathway is thought to proceed by way of a 1,2- Rautenstrauch rearrangement to produce a vinyl gold­(I) carbene, which undergoes conjugate addition by the nitrogen pronucleophile. Structural and electronic factors were studied in the nitrogen pronucleophile and in the migrating acyloxy group. Each was found to have a minor effect on the product ratio.