Gas-Phase CO<sub>2</sub> Subtraction for Improved Measurements of the Organic Aerosol Mass Concentration and Oxidation Degree by an Aerosol Mass Spectrometer
2013-12-17T00:00:00Z (GMT) by
The Aerodyne aerosol mass spectrometer (AMS) has been widely used for real-time characterization of the size-resolved chemical composition of sub-micrometer aerosol particles. The first step in AMS sampling is the pre-concentration of aerosols while stripping away the gas-phase components, which contributes to the high sensitivity of this instrument. The strength of the instrument lies in particle phase measurement; however, ion signals generated from gas-phase species can influence the interpretation of the particle-phase chemistry data. Here, we present methods for subtracting the varying contributions of gas-phase carbon dioxide (CO<sub>2</sub>) in the AMS spectra of aerosol particles, which is critical for determining the mass concentration and oxygen-to-carbon (O/C) ratio of organic aerosol. This report gives details on the gaseous CO<sub>2</sub> subtraction analysis performed on a high-resolution time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometer (HR-ToF-AMS) data set acquired from sampling of fresh and diluted vehicle emissions. Three different methods were used: (1) collocated continuous gas-phase CO<sub>2</sub> measurement coupled with periodic filter tests consisting of sampling the same particle-free air by the AMS and the CO<sub>2</sub> analyzer, (2) positive matrix factorization (PMF) analysis to separate the gas- and particle-phase signals of CO<sub>2</sub><sup>+</sup> at <i>m</i>/<i>z</i> 44, and (3) use of the particle time-of-flight (PTOF) size-resolved chemical information for separation of gas- and particle-phase signals at <i>m</i>/<i>z</i> 44. Our results indicate that these three different approaches yield internally consistent values for the gas/particle apportionment of <i>m</i>/<i>z</i> 44, but methods 2 and 3 require certain conditions to be met to yield reliable results. The methods presented are applicable to any situation where gas-phase components may influence the PM signal of interest.