Flower visitation networks.

Maps showing the cumulative movement patterns of (a) resident bees during the one-forager phase, (b) resident bees during the two-forager phase, and (c) newcomer bees during the two-forager phase. Visitation networks of bees from the same pair are presented in vertical columns. For each panel, we have represented the nest box (black square), the flowers that were visited at least once (circles), and the flowers that were never visited (grey crosses), by the focal bee. The diameter of each circle is proportional to the cumulative frequency of visits to that flower relative to the total number of visits to all flowers. The four flowers visited most frequently by the focal bee are shown in red. Arrows indicate the frequency and direction in which the bee moved between pairs of locations. Arrow thickness is proportional to the cumulative frequency of transitions between locations relative to the total number of transitions observed. Single-headed arrows indicate the bee was significantly more likely to move in one direction during that transition (binomial test with probability 0.5 to move in either direction, P < 0.05). Two-headed arrows indicate symmetrical transition direction. Labels (Bee 1–14, Pair 1–7) refer to the same individuals throughout the study.