Experimental and Modeling Studies Showing the Effect of Lipid Type and Level on Flavor Release from Milk-Based Liquid Emulsions

The purpose of this work was to study two key parameters of the lipid phase that influence flavor releaselipid level and lipid typeand to relate the results to a mass balance partition coefficient-based mathematical model. Release of 10 volatile compounds from milk-based emulsions at 10, 25, and 50 °C was monitored by 1-min headspace sampling with a solid-phase microextraction fiber, followed by GC-MS analysis. As compared to the observations for milk fat, changing to a lipophilic lipid (medium-chain triglycerides, MCT) and adding a monoglyceride-based surfactant did not influence the volatiles release. However, increasing the solid fat content was found to increase the release. At 25 °C, and even more so at 10 °C, concurrent with an increase in their solid fat content, hydrogenated palm fat emulsions showed increased flavor release over that observed for emulsions made with coconut oil, coconut oil with surfactant, milk fat, and MCT. However, at 50 °C, when hydrogenated palm fat emulsions had zero solid fat content, there was no difference in flavor release from that observed for milk fat emulsions. Varying milk fat at nine levels between 0 and 4.5% showed a systematic dependence of the release on the lipid level, dependent on compound lipophilicity. Close correlations were found between the experimental and model predictions with lipid level and percent liquid lipid as variables. Keywords: Partition coefficients; oil; model; interaction