Enterovirus 71 mediates cell cycle arrest in S phase through non-structural protein 3D

<p>Many viruses disrupt the host cell cycle to facilitate their own growth. We assessed the mechanism and function of enterovirus 71 (EV71), a primary causative agent for recent hand, foot, and mouth disease outbreaks, in manipulating cell cycle progression. Our results suggest that EV71 infection induces S-phase arrest in diverse cell types by preventing the cell cycle transition from the S phase into the G2/M phase. Similar results were observed for an alternate <i>picornavirus,</i> Coxsackievirus A16. Synchronization in S phase, but not G0/G1 phase or G2/M phase, promotes viral replication. Consistent with its ability to arrest cells in S phase, the expression of cyclin A2, CDK 2, cyclin E1, and cyclin B1 was regulated by EV71 through increasing transcription of cyclin E1, promoting proteasome-mediated degradation of cyclin A2 and regulating the phosphorylation of CDK 2. Finally, a non-structural protein of EV71, the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase 3D, was demonstrated to mediate S-phase cell cycle arrest. These findings suggest that EV71 induces S-phase cell cycle arrest in infected cells via non-structural protein 3D, which may provide favorable conditions for virus production.</p>