End-stage renal disease adherence questionnaire: translation and validation to the portuguese language

Non-adherence to medical plans is recognized as an important problem in dialysis patients, since it has been associated with increased morbidity and mortality, resulting in disproportionately high costs of care. The success of renal replacement therapy depends on the adherence of patients to the different aspects of the therapeutic strategy, which includes a complex drug regimen involving a wide variety of drugs and doses, several prescribed dialysis sessions with different durations, dietetic recommendations and restriction of fluid intake. In this work, we aimed to translate and validate a previously described self-reported end-stage renal disease questionnaire (ESRD-AQ) to the Portuguese language (PESRD-AQ). After ESRD-AQ translation, a validation was performed by experts and by using a cohort of 185 Portuguese dialysis patients. PESRD-AQ reliability analysis showed strong test–retest stability across all items, with an intra-class correlation of 0.931. The average of the item-level content validity index by experts for the 46 items was 0.98, ranging from 0.94 to 1. Moreover, we found that PESRD-AQ scores indicative of non-adherence were associated with alterations in some biological and biochemical markers of non-adherence, including interdialytic weight gain. In conclusion, our results showed that PESRD-AQ, which presented an acceptable reliability and validity, is a valid tool to be used for adherence evaluation by Portuguese-speaking dialysis patients.