Direct comparison of bacterial taxonomic abundance between BD patients and normal individuals.

We compared directly the relative abundance (expressed as parts per unit) between BD patients (BD) and normal individuals (NI). We conducted Wilcoxon rank sum test for the differences in every taxon, followed by Tukey’s honestly significant difference (HSD) test. We considered that bacterial taxa increased or decreased significantly in patients with BD as compared with those in normal individuals by fulfilling the following criteria simultaneously; #1: bacterial taxa showing significant differences by the Wilcoxon rank sum test, and #2: bacterial taxa showing positive Tukey’s HSD values. We found that there were significant differences in 11 bacterial taxa (also shown in Fig 2 with asterisks). “p__”, “c__”, “o__”, “f__” and “g__” indicate phylum, class, order, family and genus, respectively. Relative abundance of bacterial taxa in BD patients and normal individuals were displayed with dot plots. A box-plot and a mean level (green line) of each group of BD patients and normal individuals were indicated.