Differential transcriptome analysis reveals genes related to cold tolerance in seabuckthorn carpenter moth, <i>Eogystia hippophaecolus</i>

<div><p>Seabuckthorn carpenter moth, <i>Eogystia hippophaecolus</i> (Lepidoptera: Cossidae), is an important pest of sea buckthorn (<i>Hippophae rhamnoides</i>), which is a shrub that has significant ecological and economic value in China. <i>E</i>. <i>hippophaecolus</i> is highly cold tolerant, but limited studies have been conducted to elucidate the molecular mechanisms underlying its cold resistance. Here we sequenced the <i>E</i>. <i>hippophaecolus</i> transcriptome using RNA-Seq technology and performed <i>de novo</i> assembly from the short paired-end reads. We investigated the larval response to cold stress by comparing gene expression profiles between treatments. We obtained 118,034 unigenes, of which 22,161 were annotated with gene descriptions, conserved domains, gene ontology terms, and metabolic pathways. These resulted in 57 GO terms and 193 Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathways. By comparing transcriptome profiles for differential gene expression, we identified many differentially expressed proteins and genes, including heat shock proteins and cuticular proteins which have previously been reported to be involved in cold resistance of insects. This study provides a global transcriptome analysis and an assessment of differential gene expression in <i>E</i>. <i>hippophaecolus</i> under cold stress. We found seven differential expressed genes in common between developmental stages, which were verified with qPCR. Our findings facilitate future genomic studies aimed at improving our understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying the response of insects to low temperatures.</p></div>