Data_Sheet_1_Using Deep Convolutional Neural Networks for Neonatal Brain Image Segmentation.docx

Introduction

Deep learning neural networks are especially potent at dealing with structured data, such as images and volumes. Both modified LiviaNET and HyperDense-Net performed well at a prior competition segmenting 6-month-old infant magnetic resonance images, but neonatal cerebral tissue type identification is challenging given its uniquely inverted tissue contrasts. The current study aims to evaluate the two architectures to segment neonatal brain tissue types at term equivalent age.

Methods

Both networks were retrained over 24 pairs of neonatal T1 and T2 data from the Developing Human Connectome Project public data set and validated on another eight pairs against ground truth. We then reported the best-performing model from training and its performance by computing the Dice similarity coefficient (DSC) for each tissue type against eight test subjects.

Results

During the testing phase, among the segmentation approaches tested, the dual-modality HyperDense-Net achieved the best statistically significantly test mean DSC values, obtaining 0.94/0.95/0.92 for the tissue types and took 80 h to train and 10 min to segment, including preprocessing. The single-modality LiviaNET was better at processing T2-weighted images than processing T1-weighted images across all tissue types, achieving mean DSC values of 0.90/0.90/0.88 for gray matter, white matter, and cerebrospinal fluid, respectively, while requiring 30 h to train and 8 min to segment each brain, including preprocessing.

Discussion

Our evaluation demonstrates that both neural networks can segment neonatal brains, achieving previously reported performance. Both networks will be continuously retrained over an increasingly larger repertoire of neonatal brain data and be made available through the Canadian Neonatal Brain Platform to better serve the neonatal brain imaging research community.