Daily expression of genes coding for neurotransmitters in central and peripheral tissues of redheaded bunting: Implication for circadian regulation of physiology in songbirds

2016-03-01T21:43:26Z (GMT) by Ila Mishra Devraj Singh Vinod Kumar
<p>In birds, circadian control of tissue level communication is not well understood. The present study investigated this, by monitoring daily oscillation of genes coding for peptides (neuropeptide Y, <i>NPY</i>; vasoactive intestinal peptide, <i>VIP;</i> somatostatis, <i>SST</i>) and intermediary enzymes of amine and amino acid neurotransmitters (dopamine [tyrosine hydroxylase, <i>TH]</i>; glutamate [glutaminase, <i>GLS</i>; glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase 2, <i>GOT2</i>]; gamma amino butyric actid, GABA [glutamic acid decarboxylase 65, <i>GAD65</i>]) biosynthetic pathway, along with <i>c-FOS</i> as an activation marker, in different tissues of migratory redheaded buntings, <i>Emberiza bruniceps</i>. We cloned a partial sequence of these genes, and measured their mRNA expression in the ‘central’ clock (retina, hypothalamus) and peripheral (heart, stomach, gut, liver) tissues, collected at six times (ZT 2, 6, 11, 13, 18 and 23; ZT 0 = lights on) from birds (<i>n</i> = 4/ ZT) in the 12 h:12 h light-dark cycle. There were daily mRNA oscillations of all genes, although with a tissue-specific expression pattern as well as with the differential phase relationships in genes within and between tissues. These results support a conserved tissue level circadian regulation of genes coding for peptide, amine and amino acid neurotransmitters, and substantiate the expression and plausible role of neurotransmitters in the peripheral tissues. We suggest a tissue-specific contribution of neurotransmitters in the circadian regulation of physiology and behaviour in a seasonal migratory species, the redheaded bunting.</p>