Cytotoxicity, <i>In vitro</i> anti-Leishmanial and fingerprint HPLC- photodiode array analysis of the roots of <i>Trillium govanianum</i>

<p><i>Trillium govanianum</i> Wall. ex D. Don (Melanthiaceae <i>alt.</i> Trilliaceae), commonly known as ‘nagchhatry’ or ‘teen patra’, distributed from Pakistan to Bhutan about 2500–3800 m altitude is indigenous to Himalayas region. In folk medicine the plant has been reported for the treatment of wound healing, sepsis and in various sexual disorders<i>.</i> This paper reports, for the first time, to evaluate the cytotoxicity, <i>in vitro</i> anti-leishmanial (promastigotes) and fingerprint HPLC-photodiode array analysis of the MeOH extract of the roots of <i>T. govanianum</i> and its solid phase extraction fractions. Reverse phase HPLC-PDA based quantification revealed the presence of significant amount of quercetin, myrecetin and kaemferol ranging from 0.221to 0.528 μg/mg DW. MeOH extract revealed distinguishable protein kinase inhibitory activity against <i>Streptomyces</i> 85E strain with 18 mm bald phenotype. The remarkable toxicity profile against brine shrimps and leishmanial was manifested by MeOH extract with LC<sub>50</sub> 10 and 38.5 μg/mL, respectively.</p>