Cytotoxic effects of octenidine mouth rinse on human fibroblasts and epithelial cells – an <i>in vitro</i> study

<p><i>Objectives</i>: This study compared the cytotoxicity of a new octenidine mouth rinse (MR) against gingival fibroblasts and epithelial cells with different established MRs. <i>Methods</i>: The following MRs were used: Octenidol (OCT), Chlorhexidine 0.2% (CHX), Listerine (LIS), Meridol (MER), Betaisodona (BET); and control (medium only). Human primary gingiva fibroblasts and human primary nasal epithelial cells were cultivated in cell-specific media (2 × 10<sup>5</sup> cells/ml) and treated with MR for 1, 5, and 15 min. Each test was performed 12 times. Metabolism activity was measured using a <i>cytotoxicity assay</i>. A cellometer analyzed cell viability, cell number, and cell diameter. The data were analyzed by two-way analysis of variance with subsequent Dunnett’s test and additional <i>t</i>-tests. <i>Results</i>: The cytotoxic effects of all MRs on fibroblasts and epithelial cells compared to the control depended on the contact time (<i>p</i> < 0.001). OCT and BET showed less influence on cell metabolism in fibroblasts than other MRs. OCT also demonstrated comparable but not significant results in epithelial cells (<i>p</i> > 0.005). Cell numbers of both cell types at all contact times revealed that OCT showed a less negative effect (<i>p</i> > 0.005), especially for epithelial cells compared to CHX after 15 min (<i>p</i> < 0.005). OCT and BET showed the best results for viability in fibroblasts (<i>p</i> > 0.005), but MER showed less influence than OCT in epithelial cells (<i>p</i> < 0.005). <i>Conclusions</i>: OCT is a potential alternative to CHX regarding cytotoxicity because of its lower cell-toxic effect against fibroblasts and epithelial cells.</p>