Current distribution pattern of biopsy-proven glomerular disease in Salvador, Brazil, 40 years after an initial assessment

Abstract Introduction: A report on the prevalence of glomerular disease diagnosed via renal biopsy in Salvador, BA, Brazil was published in 1973 and showed a predominance of membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis, which was frequently associated with hepatosplenic schistosomiasis. Objective: In this study, we investigate the potential changes in the distribution of glomerular diseases after a period of important epidemiological transition in Brazil. Methods: Pathology reports of all patients subjected to kidney biopsy from 2003 to 2015 in a referral nephrology service were reviewed. Clinical, laboratorial and pathological diagnoses were collected for analysis. Histological slides of the biopsies performed between 2003 and 2006 were reviewed to examine the accuracy of the estimates based on the pathology reports. Results: Among the biopsies performed during the time period, 1,312 met the inclusion criteria for the study. Focal and segmental glomerulosclerosis was the most prevalent diagnosis, followed by lupus nephritis. However, a trend toward a decrease in the prevalence of focal and segmental glomerulosclerosis was detected (p < 0.05), and an increase in lupus (p < 0.0001) and membranous glomerulonephritis (p < 0.005) was observed. Conclusion: The data presented herein suggest the occurrence of changes in the distribution of nephrological diseases in Salvador, Brazil. The disease that was most prevalent shifted from membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis to focal and segmental glomerulosclerosis from 1975 to 2006 and from focal and segmental glomerulosclerosis to lupus nephritis from 2006 to 2015.