Crambe (Crambe abyssinica) and sunflower (Helianthus annuus) protein concentrates: production methods and nutritional properties for use in fish feed
ABSTRACT The purpose of this study was to develop and improve protein concentration techniques for two industrial by-products with the potential for use in fish feed. In particular, we chemically characterized crambe meal and sunflower meal and their protein concentrates. Three different protein concentration methods were tested: isoelectric pH (pHi), acid pH and alkaline pH. For crambe and sunflower meals extraction using the pHi method was most efficient in terms of protein yield and crude protein content in the concentrates; this method also increased lysine and methionine content in the concentrates. The water holding capacity of the sunflower protein concentrate was greater than that of the crambe protein concentrate. The crambe protein concentrate had a foam-formation capacity of 15%, which stabilized at 6% after 90 minutes. The protein concentration method also reduced total phenolic content by approximately 50% in the concentrates compared with the meals. Therefore, we conclude that protein concentration using the pHi method is the most efficient technique for crambe and sunflower meals, and the use of this technique can decrease total phenolic compounds while improving meal quality for fish feeding.