Contributions of cortical and amygdalar interneurons to flexible decision-making and attention: Spiking model.

Time evolution of a key spiking model activity, during the first two seconds of the first testing phase. Simulations and key activities of the rate-coded and spiking models were similar, with each simulation divided into 4 epochs: two conditioning phases, followed by two testing phases. A, Cortical activity corresponding to the feed plan. B, Cortical activity corresponding to the fear plan. Plan cortical inhibitory interneurons (black spikes) trigger resetting of the corresponding plan (blue and red spikes), allowing a new plan to be selected. C, D, Activity in the salience map corresponding to appetitive (positive) stimuli (CS1, CS2). E, Activity in the salience map corresponding to an aversive (negative) stimulus (CS3). Amygdalar inhibitory interneurons (black spikes) trigger resetting of the corresponding BA principal neuron (green spikes), allowing a new CS to be selected if it is relevant to the ongoing plan (C-E). F, Activity in sensory cortex corresponding to CS1 (cyan), CS2 (orange), and CS3 (magenta). G, Conditioned Stimuli reaching sensory thalamus (CSs). In A-E, the inhibitory interneuron spiking activity is shown in black.