Combined Transcriptomic and Proteomic Approach to Identify Toxicity Pathways in Early Life Stages of Japanese Medaka (Oryzias latipes) Exposed to 1,2,5,6-Tetrabromocyclooctane (TBCO)

Currently, the novel brominated flame retardant 1,2,5,6-tetrabromocyclooctane (TBCO) is considered a potential replacement for hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD). Therefore, use of TBCO could increase in the near future. To assess potential toxicological risks to aquatic organisms, embryos of Japanese medaka (Oryzias latipes) were exposed to 10, 100, or 1000 μg/L TBCO from 2 h postfertilization until 1 day post-hatch. TBCO accumulated in embryos in the order of 0.43–1.3 × 10<sup>4</sup>-fold, and the rate constant of accumulation was 1.7–1.8 per day. The number of days to hatch and the hatching success of embryos exposed to the medium and the greatest concentrations of TBCO were impaired. Responses of the transcriptome (RNA-seq) and proteome were characterized in embryos exposed to 100 μg/L TBCO because this was the least concentration of TBCO that caused an effect on hatching. Consistent with effects on hatching, proteins whose abundances were reduced by exposure to TBCO were enriched in embryo development and hatching pathways. Also, on the basis of the responses of transcriptome and proteome, it was predicted that TBCO might impair vision and contraction of cardiac muscle, respectively, and these effects were confirmed by targeted bioassays. This study provided a comprehensive understanding of effects of TBCO on medaka at early life stages and illustrated the power of “omics” to explain and predict phenotypic responses to chemicals.