Characterization of domain-specific interaction of synthesized dye with serum proteins by spectroscopic and docking approaches along with determination of in vitro cytotoxicity and antiviral activity

<p>The interaction between a synthesized dye with proteins, bovine, and human serum albumin (BSA, HSA, respectively) under physiological conditions has been characterized in detail, by means of steady-state and time-resolved fluorescence, UV–vis absorption, and circular dichroism (CD) techniques. An extensive time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopic characterization of the quenching process has been undertaken in conjugation with temperature-dependent fluorescence quenching studies to divulge the actual quenching mechanism. From the thermodynamic observations, it is clear that the binding process is a spontaneous molecular interaction, in which van der Waals and hydrogen bonding interactions play the major roles. The UV–vis absorption and CD results confirm that the dye can induce conformational and micro-environmental changes of both the proteins. In addition, the dye binding provokes the functionality of the native proteins in terms of esterase-like activity. The average binding distance (<i>r</i>) between proteins and dye has been calculated using FRET. Cytotoxicity and antiviral effects of the dye have been found using Vero cell and <b>HSV-1F</b> virus by performing MTT assay. The AutoDock-based docking simulation reveals the probable binding location of dye within the sub-domain IIA of HSA and IB of BSA.</p>