Characterization of Danio rerio Mn2+-Dependent ADP-Ribose/CDP-Alcohol Diphosphatase, the Structural Prototype of the ADPRibase-Mn-Like Protein Family

The ADPRibase-Mn-like protein family, that belongs to the metallo-dependent phosphatase superfamily, has different functional and structural prototypes. The functional one is the Mn2+-dependent ADP-ribose/CDP-alcohol diphosphatase from Rattus norvegicus, which is essentially inactive with Mg2+ and active with low micromolar Mn2+ in the hydrolysis of the phosphoanhydride linkages of ADP-ribose, CDP-alcohols and cyclic ADP-ribose (cADPR) in order of decreasing efficiency. The structural prototype of the family is a Danio rerio protein with a known crystallographic structure but functionally uncharacterized. To estimate the structure-function correlation with the same protein, the activities of zebrafish ADPRibase-Mn were studied. Differences between zebrafish and rat enzymes are highlighted. The former showed a complex activity dependence on Mn2+, significant (≈25%) Mg2+-dependent activity, but was almost inactive on cADPR (150-fold less efficient than the rat counterpart). The low cADPR hydrolase activity agreed with the zebrafish genome lacking genes coding for proteins with significant homology with cADPR-forming enzymes. Substrate-docking to zebrafish wild-type protein, and characterization of the ADPRibase-Mn H97A mutant pointed to a role of His-97 in catalysis by orientation, and to a bidentate water bridging the dinuclear metal center as the potential nucleophile. Finally, three structural elements that delimit the active site entrance in the zebrafish protein were identified as unique to the ADPRibase-Mn-like family within the metallo-dependent phosphatase superfamily.