Biodiversity of rock, beach and water fungi in Italy
The fungal biodiversity in its overall is mostly still unknown and the ecological role of these organisms, particularly in some border ecosystems, is often underestimated. This study aims to give both an overview of the state of the art and to present new data on the mycodiversity in some peculiar environments as rocks, beach sand, and water in Italy. Particularly, rock fungi are here reported from high mountain peaks, sea cliffs, and monuments; sand associated fungi from beach ecosystems in Puglia and Ligurian coasts; marine fungi associated with the endemic seagrass of the Mediterranean Posidonia oceanica L.; aquatic hyphomycetes (Ingoldian fungi) from both streams in the Ticino Natural Park and lentic water in Lago Maggiore; fungi from the water distribution system in Turin. Ecological and evolutive considerations are put forward.