Bioactive coumarins from the roots and fruits of <i>Ferulago trifida</i> Boiss.<i>,</i> an endemic species to Iran

<p>Phytochemical analysis of the <i>Ferulago trifida</i> Boiss. from Apiaceae family led to the isolation and identification of suberosin (<b>1</b>), isoimperatorin (<b>2</b>), prantschimgin (<b>3</b>), oxypeucedanin (<b>4</b>), oxypeucedanin methanolate (<b>5</b>), suberenol (<b>6</b>), 6-hydroxymethylherniarin (<b>7</b>), oxypeucedanin hydrate (<b>8</b>), ulopterol (<b>9</b>), bergapten (<b>10</b>), xanthotoxin (<b>11</b>), imperatorin (<b>12</b>) and grandivittin (<b>13</b>) from chloroform extracts of the roots (<b>1–9</b>) and fruits (<b>1</b>, <b>2</b>, <b>8</b>, <b>10–13</b>) of this species. Oxypeucedanin methanolate and suberenol demonstrated a potent antioxidant power with 268.2 ± 5.4 and 251.2 ± 6.2 mmol FSE/100 g, respectively, compared by BHT (267.2 ± 4.2 mmol FSE/100 g) in FRAP method. The potent antibacterial effects were found for oxypeucedanin methanolate on <i>S. epidermidis</i> (IZ; 26 mm, MIC; 250 μg mL<sup>−1</sup>) an oxypeucedanin hydrate on <i>K. pneumoniae</i> (IZ: 21 mm, MIC: 250 μg mL<sup>−1</sup>). Moreover, suberosin showed higher preferential toxicity against MDA-MB-23 cells (IC<sub>50</sub>: 0.21 mM, SI: 5.0), in comparison with tamoxifen (IC<sub>50</sub>: 0.012 mM, SI: 2.45) in MTT assay.</p>