Augmented visual feedback-aided interventions for motor rehabilitation in Parkinson’s disease: a systematic review

<p><b>Purpose:</b> A systematic review was performed to (1) evaluate the effectiveness of augmented visual feedback-based treatments for motor rehabilitation in Parkinson’s disease, and (2) examine treatment design factors associated with enhanced outcomes following these treatments.</p> <p><b>Methods:</b> Eight databases were searched from their start-date up to January 2017 using the key terms <i>Parkinson’s Disease</i> and <i>augmented visual feedback</i>. Two independent raters screened the abstracts and full articles for inclusion. Relevant data were extracted and summarized, and methodological quality of accepted articles was assessed.</p> <p><b>Results:</b> Eight single-group studies and 10 randomized control trials were included in the review. Augmented visual feedback-based treatments resulted in improved outcomes with small to large effect sizes post-treatment for the majority of impairment, activity, participation, and global motor function measures, and these improvements were often superior to traditional rehabilitation/education programs. Enhanced treatment outcomes were observed in studies that provided large amounts and high intensities of treatment; gamified feedback; and provided knowledge of performance feedback in real-time on 100% of practice trials.</p> <p><b>Conclusion:</b> Augmented visual feedback appears to be a useful motor rehabilitation tool in Parkinson’s disease; however, high-quality, rigorous studies remain limited. Future studies should consider factors that enhance rehabilitation outcomes when designing augmented visual feedback-based interventions.Implications for rehabilitation</p><p>Augmented visual feedback is a useful tool for motor rehabilitation in Parkinson’s disease; augmented visual feedback-based treatments are often superior to traditional programs.</p><p>These treatments are associated with improved outcomes in impairment, activity, participation, and global motor function domains.</p><p>Rehabilitation professionals can optimize their use of augmented visual feedback-based treatments by providing large amounts and a high intensity of treatment, gamifying feedback, and providing knowledge of performance feedback in real-time and at a high frequency.</p><p></p> <p>Augmented visual feedback is a useful tool for motor rehabilitation in Parkinson’s disease; augmented visual feedback-based treatments are often superior to traditional programs.</p> <p>These treatments are associated with improved outcomes in impairment, activity, participation, and global motor function domains.</p> <p>Rehabilitation professionals can optimize their use of augmented visual feedback-based treatments by providing large amounts and a high intensity of treatment, gamifying feedback, and providing knowledge of performance feedback in real-time and at a high frequency.</p>