Antibody to CMRF35-Like Molecule 2, CD300e A Novel Biomarker Detected in Patients with Fulminant Type 1 Diabetes

Aims/Hypothesis

Fulminant type 1 diabetes (FT1D) is a distinct subtype of type 1 diabetes and is fatal without immediate diagnosis and treatment. At present, there are no biomarkers for early and predictive detection of FT1D.

Methods

First, we analyzed a total of 6 serum samples from 3 patients with FT1D (1 sample in the acute and 1 in the sub-acute phases from each patient) by seromic analysis. Second, titres of the antibody were measured by ELISA in sera from 30 patients with FT1D (both in the acute and sub-acute phases), 13 patients with FT1D in the chronic phase, 32 patients with autoimmune type 1 (type 1A) diabetes (T1AD), 30 patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D), 23 patients with autoimmune thyroid disease (AITD) and 31 healthy control subjects (HC).

Results

Seromic analysis revealed 9 antibodies which showed high signals from all 3 patients with FT1D in the acute phase. Among them, the titre of anti-CD300e antibody was significantly higher in FT1D patients in the acute phase than that in T1AD, T2D, AITD patients and HC, as determined by ELISA (P<0.01, respectively). The titre of anti-CD300e antibody was also higher in FT1D in the acute phase than that in the sub-acute phase (P = 0.0018, Wilcoxon signed-rank test). The titre of anti-LGALS3 antibody in FT1D patients in the acute phase did not differ from that in patients with FT1D in the sub-acute phase, T1AD, T2D, AITD and HC.

Conclusion/Interpretation

The titre of a novel antibody, anti-CD300e, was high in sera from patients with FT1D. This antibody might be a diagnostic marker and provide new insight into the pathogenesis of FT1D.