Antibacterial effectiveness in vitro of different formulations of calcium hydroxide paste

ABSTRACT Objective: To evaluate the antibacterial activity of four formulations of calcium hydroxide paste against microorganisms commonly found in infected root canals. Methods: To evaluate antibacterial activity through the agar diffusion method, pastes of calcium hydroxide were made from its pro-analysis form, diffused into four separate vehicles: distilled water, camphorated p-monochlorophenol, propylene glycol and Otosporin®, testing the antimicrobial activity of these on strains of Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis and Enterococcus faecalis. After the incubation period, the presence or otherwise of inhibition zones were observed and their sizes in three stages: 24h, 48h and 72h. With this data, the median between the four dishes was obtained and the consequent value was submitted to Kruskal-Wallis nonparametric statistical analysis, with post-tests of Mann-Whitney and Bonferroni correction, at a significance level of 5%. Results: Only pastes with camphorated p-monochlorophenol and Otosporin vehicles caused the formation of significant inhibition zones, with medians of 8.0 mm. Against the strains of Enterococcus faecalis, only pastes with the camphorated p-monochlorophenol vehicle resulted in the formation of significant inhibition zones, with a median of 3.0 mm. Conclusion : Otosporin and CMCP vehicles provide greater antimicrobial potential to calcium hydroxide against the studied bacteria. However, only the Ca(OH)2 and CMCP combination was effective against all the strains, and can thus be regarded as the paste formulation with the greatest antimicrobial effectiveness in this study.