Anti-inflammatory and α‑Glucosidase Inhibitory Activities of Labdane and Norlabdane Diterpenoids from the Rhizomes of Amomum villosum

A new tetranorditerpenoid (1), two new labdane diterpenoids (2, 3), and nine known analogues (4–12) were isolated from the rhizomes of Amomum villosum var. xanthioides. Compound 1 is an unprecedented rearranged tetranorlabdane diterpenoid, featuring a 6/6/5 fused tricarbocyclic skeleton with an α,β-unsaturated cyclopentenone unit, while 2 is a structurally rare labdane diterpenoid carrying a five-membered cyclic anhydride moiety. Their structures and absolute configurations were established on the basis of spectroscopic data and the experimental and calculated ECD data. Compound 4 showed inhibitory activity against nitric oxide production, with an IC50 value of 2.4 μM, and also inhibited α-glucosidase activity (IC50 = 10.0 μM).