Anisotropic conductivity tensor imaging for transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) using magnetic resonance diffusion tensor imaging (MR-DTI)

<div><p>Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is a widely used non-invasive brain stimulation technique by applying low-frequency weak direct current <i>via</i> electrodes attached on the head. The tDCS using a fixed current between 1 and 2 mA has relied on computational modelings to achieve optimal stimulation effects. Recently, by measuring the tDCS current induced magnetic field using an MRI scanner, the internal current pathway has been successfully recovered. However, up to now, there is no technique to visualize electrical properties including the electrical anisotropic conductivity, effective extracellular ion-concentration, and electric field using only the tDCS current <i>in-vivo</i>. By measuring the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) and the magnetic flux density induced by the tDCS, we propose a method to visualize the electrical properties. We reconstruct the scale parameter, which connects the anisotropic conductivity tensor to the diffusion tensor of water molecules, by introducing a repetitive scheme called the diffusion tensor <b>J</b>-substitution algorithm using the recovered current density and the measured ADCs. We investigate the proposed method to explain why the iterative scheme converges to the internal conductivity. We verified the proposed method with an anesthetized canine brain to visualize electrical properties including the electrical properties by tDCS current.</p></div>