Additional file 3: Figure S3. of Lysophosphatidic acid via LPA-receptor 5/protein kinase D-dependent pathways induces a motile and pro-inflammatory microglial phenotype

LPA promotes activation of pro-inflammatory transcription factors in BV-2 cells. Serum-starved (A) BV-2 cells were treated with 0.1% BSA (control) or LPA (1 μM) for the indicated time periods, the cellular protein lysates were collected and phosphorylation state of IKKα/β, IκBα, p65-NF-κB, STAT1, STAT3, and c-Jun was detected using immunoblotting. One representative blot out of N = 3 experiments is shown. Actin was used as loading control. (B) Densitometric analysis of western blots show the significance of changes in the protein expression and represent mean values + SEM (*p < 0.05, **p < 0.01, ***p < 0.001; one-way ANOVA with Bonferroni correction). (PPT 582 kb)