A survey of bisphenol A and other bisphenol analogues in foodstuffs from nine cities in China
Bisphenol A (BPA) is a high-production-volume chemical that is widely used in polycarbonate plastics and epoxy food-can coatings. Following several studies that have reported adverse effects of BPA over the past decade, other bisphenol analogues, such as bisphenol F (BPF), bisphenol S (BPS), bisphenol AF (BPAF), and bisphenol B (BPB), have been gradually developed as substitutes for BPA in several applications. Nevertheless, few studies have reported on the occurrence of compounds other than BPA in foodstuffs. In this study, 289 food samples (13 categories: cereals and cereal products, meat and meat products, fish and seafood, eggs, milk and milk products, bean products, fruits, vegetables, cookies/snacks, beverages, cooking oils, condiments, and others), collected from nine cities in China, were analysed for eight bisphenol analogues using high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS). BPA and BPF were found widely in foodstuffs at concentrations ranging from below the limit of quantitation (LOQ) to 299 ng g–1 (mean = 4.94 ng g–1) and from below the LOQ to 623 ng g–1 (mean = 2.50 ng g–1), fresh weight, respectively. The highest total concentrations of bisphenols (∑BPs: sum of eight bisphenols) were found in the category of vegetables that included canned products (mean = 27.0 ng g–1), followed by fish and seafood (16.5 ng g–1) and beverages (15.6 ng g–1). ∑BP concentrations (mean = 2–3 ng g–1) in milk and milk products, cooking oils, and eggs were low. Food samples sold in metallic cans contained higher mean ∑BP concentrations (56.9 ng g–1) in comparison with those packaged in glass (0.43 ng g–1), paper (11.9 ng g–1), or plastic (6.40 ng g–1). The daily dietary intakes of bisphenols were estimated, based on the mean concentrations measured and daily consumption rates of foods, to be 646 and 664 ng kg–1 bw day–1 for men and women, respectively.