A summary of the effects of combined exposure to high stress and high chemical in comparison to either one alone in 10 human studies.

<p>To conclude that combined exposure is significantly associated with lower fetal growth than either exposure alone (high stress, low chemical & low stress, high chemical) we required a significant difference (denoted by “+”) between combined exposure and both individual exposures. Non-significant differences are denoted by “-“. Superscripts represent samples of the same population stratified by two chemical exposures.</p>