A conceptual framework for a long-term economic model for the treatment of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder

<p><b>Background:</b> Models incorporating long-term outcomes (LTOs) are not available to assess the health economic impact of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).</p> <p><b>Objective:</b> Develop a conceptual modelling framework capable of assessing long-term economic impact of ADHD therapies.</p> <p><b>Methods:</b> Literature was reviewed; a conceptual structure for the long-term model was outlined with attention to disease characteristics and potential impact of treatment strategies.</p> <p><b>Results:</b> The proposed model has four layers: i) multi-state short-term framework to differentiate between ADHD treatments; ii) multiple states being merged into three core health states associated with LTOs; iii) series of sub-models in which particular LTOs are depicted; iv) outcomes collected to be either used directly for economic analyses or translated into other relevant measures.</p> <p><b>Conclusions:</b> This conceptual model provides a framework to assess relationships between short- and long-term outcomes of the disease and its treatment, and to estimate the economic impact of ADHD treatments throughout the course of the disease.</p>