ACT and AVP additively induced astrocyte injury.

<p>(A) Hoechst 33342 and PI double-staining of astrocytes. Cells were cultured for 48h in AVP-free medium supplemented with AVP, ACT, a combination of ACT and AVP, or a combination of ACT and AVP with OPC-21268. (B) The percentages of dead cells were calculated by determining the ratio of PI-stained cells to Hoechst-stained cells. (C) The expression of AQP4 mRNA in cells cultured under the same conditions as (A) was analyzed by a quantitative real-time RT-PCR. The bars indicate the mean ± standard error of the mean (<i>n</i> = 3). *<i>p</i> < 0.05, in comparison to control, # <i>p</i> < 0.05.</p>