Supplementary material from "Tales from the crypt: a parasitoid manipulates the behaviour of its parasite host"
Published on 2017-01-23T13:23:28Z (GMT) by
There are many examples of apparent manipulation of host phenotype by parasites, yet few examples of hypermanipulation—where a phenotype-manipulating parasite is itself manipulated by a parasite. Moreover, few studies confirm manipulation is occurring by quantifying whether the host's changed phenotype increases parasite fitness. Here we describe a novel case of hypermanipulation, in which the crypt gall wasp <i>Bassettia pallida</i> (a phenotypic manipulator of its tree host) is manipulated by the parasitoid crypt-keeper wasp <i>Euderus set</i>, and show that the host's changed behaviour increases parasitoid fitness. <i>Bassettia pallida</i> parasitizes sand live oaks and induces the formation of a ‘crypt’ within developing stems. When parasitized by <i>E. set</i>, <i>B. pallida</i> adults excavate an emergence hole in the crypt wall, plug the hole with their head and die. We show experimentally that this phenomenon benefits <i>E. set</i>, as <i>E. set</i> that need to excavate an emergence hole themselves are about three times more likely to die trapped in the crypt. In addition, we discuss museum and field data to explore the distribution of the crypt-keeping phenomena.
Cite this collection
Weinersmith, Kelly L.; Liu, Sean M.; A. Forbes, Andrew; Egan, Scott P. (2017): Supplementary material from "Tales from the crypt: a parasitoid manipulates the behaviour of its parasite host". The Royal Society.