Nutritional risk and associated factors of adult in-patients at a teaching hospital in the Copperbelt province in Zambia; a hospital-based cross-sectional study

Published on 2018-12-06T05:00:00Z (GMT) by
Abstract Background Nutritional risk and undernutrition are common problems among medical and surgical patients. In hospital, malnutrition is frequently under-diagnosed and untreated thereby contributing to morbidity and mortality. The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of nutritional risk among adult inpatients at a teaching hospital in Zambia. In addition, the study sought to establish factors associated with nutritional risk. Methods A hospital-based cross-sectional study comprising of 186 consecutive in-patients aged 18–64 years admitted in medical and surgical wards was conducted at a teaching hospital. Out of one hundred and ninety eight (198) patients eligible to participate, complete data were collected from 186, representing a response rate of 93.9%. The Malnutrition Universal Screening Tool was used to collect data over a period of six months. Evaluated patients were dichotomized into no risk and nutritional risk. Binary logistic regression was performed to identify variables associated with nutritional risk. Results The mean age of adult in-patients was 40.72 ± 14.4 years. Majority of the patients were male (61.8%), while 38.2% were female. Results indicate that 59.7% of hospitalized patients were at nutritional risk. Vomiting, weakness, appetite decrease, dysphagia and weight loss were significantly associated (p = 0.019, p = 0.008, p < 0.001, p = 0.007, and p < 0.001 respectively) with nutritional risk. However, weight loss and appetite decrease were the most significant factors associated with nutritional risk (OR = 50.16, 95% CI = 5.75–36.70, p < 0.001 and OR = 28.06, 95% CI =1.49–8.12, p = < 0.001 respectively). Conclusion Findings of our study suggest that close to 60% of adult inpatients at the teaching hospital were at nutritional risk. Nutritional risk is an issue of major concern at the teaching hospital and is associated with a number of variables. Identification of nutritional risk using Malnutrition Universal Screening Tool among adult inpatients is feasible in resource-poor settings like ours.

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Miyoba, Nixon; Musowoya, Joseph; Mwanza, Emily; Malama, Angel; Murambiwa, Nyati; Ogada, Irene; et al. (2018): Nutritional risk and associated factors of adult in-patients at a teaching hospital in the Copperbelt province in Zambia; a hospital-based cross-sectional study. figshare. Collection.