Calcium, Ammonia, Redox-Active Tyrosine YZ, and Proton-Coupled Electron Transfer in the Photosynthetic Oxygen-Evolving Complex
Published on 2018-04-14T13:13:25Z (GMT) by
A redox-active tyrosine, YZ (Y161 in the D1 polypeptide), is essential in photosystem II (PSII), which conducts photosynthetic oxygen evolution. On each step of the light-driven oxygen evolving reaction, YZ radical is formed by a chlorophyll cation radical. YZ radical is then reduced by a Mn<sub>4</sub>CaO<sub>5</sub> cluster in a proton coupled electron transfer (PCET) reaction. YZ is hydrogen bonded to His190-D1 and to water molecules in a hydrogen-bonding network, involving calcium. This network is sensitive to disruption with ammonia and to removal and replacement of calcium. Only strontium supports activity. Here, we use electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy to define the influence of ammonia treatment, calcium removal, and strontium/barium substitution on YZ radical PCET at two pH values. A defined oxidation state of the metal cluster (S<sub>2</sub>) was trapped by illumination at 190 K. The net reduction and protonation of YZ radical via PCET were monitored by EPR transients collected after a 532 nm laser flash. At 190 K, YZ radical cannot oxidize the Mn<sub>4</sub>CaO<sub>5</sub> cluster and decays on the seconds time scale by recombination with Q<sub>A</sub><sup>–</sup>. The overall decay half-time and biexponential fits were used to analyze the results. The reaction rate was independent of pH in control, calcium-reconstituted PSII (Ca-PSII). At pH 7.5, the YZ radical decay rate decreased in calcium-depleted (CD-PSII) and barium/strontium-reconstituted PSII (Ba-PSII, Sr-PSII), relative to Ca-PSII. At pH 6.0, the YZ radical decay rate was not significantly altered in CD-PSII and Sr-PSII but decreased in Ba-PSII. A two-pathway model, involving two competing proton donors with different p<i>K</i><sub>a</sub> values, is proposed to explain these results. Ammonia treatment decreased the YZ decay rate in Ca-PSII, Sr-PSII, and CD-PSII, consistent with a reaction that is mediated by the hydrogen-bonding network. However, ammonia treatment did not alter the rate in Ba-PSII. This result is interpreted in terms of the large ionic radius of barium and the elevated p<i>K</i><sub>a</sub> of barium-bound water, which are expected to disrupt hydrogen bonding. In addition, evidence for a functional interaction between the S<sub>2</sub> protonated water cluster (W<sub>n</sub><sup>+</sup>) and the YZ proton donation pathway is presented. This interaction is proposed to increase the rate of the YZ PCET reaction.
Cite this collection
Guo, Zhanjun; Barry, Bridgette A. (2018): Calcium, Ammonia, Redox-Active Tyrosine YZ, and Proton-Coupled
Electron Transfer in the Photosynthetic Oxygen-Evolving Complex. ACS Publications. Collection.