Alpha-1 antichymotrypsin is involved in astrocyte injury in concert with arginine-vasopressin during the development of acute hepatic encephalopathy

Published on 2017-12-07T18:58:10Z (GMT) by
<div><p>Background and aims</p><p>We developed a bio-artificial liver (BAL) using a radial-flow bioreactor and rescued mini-pig models with lethal acute liver failure (ALF). The point of the rescue is the recovery from hepatic encephalopathy (HE). HE on ALF has sometimes resulted in brain death following brain edema with astrocyte swelling. Several factors, including ammonia and glutamine, have been reported to induce astrocyte swelling and injury. However, many clinicians believe that there are any other factors involved in the development of HE. Therefore, the aim of this study was to identify novel HE-inducible factors, particularly those inducing astrocyte dysfunction.</p><p>Methods</p><p>Mini-pig plasma samples were collected at three time points: before the administration of toxins (α-amanitin and LPS), when HE occurred after the administration of toxins, and after treatment with extracorporeal circulation (EC) by the BAL. To identify the causative factors of HE, each plasma sample was subjected to a comparative proteome analysis with two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry. To assess the direct effects of candidate factors on the astrocyte function and injury, <i>in vitro</i> experiments with human astrocytes were performed.</p><p>Results</p><p>Using a proteome analysis, we identified alpha-1 antichymotrypsin (ACT), which was increased in plasma samples from mini-pigs with HE and decreased in those after treatment with EC by BAL. In <i>in vitro</i> experiments with human astrocytes, ACT showed growth-inhibitory and cytotoxic effects on astrocytes. In addition, the expression of water channel protein aquaporin-4, which is induced in injured astrocytes, was increased following ACT treatment. Interestingly, these effects of ACT were additively enhanced by adding arginine-vasopressin (AVP) and were canceled by adding an AVP receptor antagonist.</p><p>Conclusions</p><p>These results suggest that ACT is involved in astrocyte injury and dysfunction in concert with AVP during the development of acute HE.</p></div>

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Park, Jonghyuk; Masaki, Takahiro; Mezaki, Yoshihiro; Yokoyama, Hiroshi; Nakamura, Mariko; Maehashi, Haruka; Fujimi, Takahiko J.; S. Gouraud, Sabine; Nagatsuma, Keisuke; Nakagomi, Madoka; Kimura, Naofumi; Matsuura, Tomokazu (2017): Alpha-1 antichymotrypsin is involved in astrocyte injury in concert with arginine-vasopressin during the development of acute hepatic encephalopathy. PLOS ONE.