Stephen Gallo

Technical Operations Manager, American Institute of Biological Sciences (Research, Science and Technology Policy)

Reston, Virginia

I provide high level policy, scientific and technical support and senior leadership to AIBS SPARS. We publish manuscripts based on anonymized data (generated through SPARS peer review) in open access peer reviewed journals to further the empirical database upon which the best practices in peer review are based.


  • Frequency and Type of Conflicts of Interest in the Peer Review of Basic Biomedical Research Funding Applications: Self-Reporting Versus Manual Detection
  • The validation of peer review through research impact measures and the implications for funding strategies
  • Kinetic studies of HIV-1 and HIV-2 envelope glycoprotein-mediated fusion
  • The stability of the intact envelope glycoproteins is a major determinant of sensitivity of HIV/SIV to peptidic fusion inhibitors
  • Elevated expression of GM3 in receptor-bearing targets confers resistance to human immunodeficiency virus type 1 fusion
  • Teleconference versus Face-to-Face Scientific Peer Review of Grant Application: Effects on Review Outcomes
  • θ-defensins prevent HIV-1 Env-mediated fusion by binding gp41 and blocking 6-helix bundle formation
  • Local and transient structural changes in stratum corneum at high electric fields: Contribution of Joule heating
  • Temperature-dependent intermediates in HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein-mediated fusion revealed by inhibitors that target N- and C-terminal helical regions of HIV-1 gp41
  • The C- and the N-terminal Regions of Glycoprotein 41 Ectodomain Fuse Membranes Enriched and Not Enriched with Cholesterol, Respectively
  • The HIV Env-mediated fusion reaction
  • Fluorescent lipid probes in the study of viral membrane fusion
  • Functional expression of CD4, CXCR4, and CCR5 in glycosphingolipid- deficient mouse melanoma GM95 cells and susceptibility to HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein-triggered membrane fusion
  • Modulation of entry of enveloped viruses by cholesterol and sphingolipids
  • Temperature-dependent electrical and ultrastructural characterizations of porcine skin upon electroporation
  • Mode of action of an antiviral peptide from HIV-1. Inhibition at a post-lipid mixing stage
  • Electrorheological modeling of the permeabilization of the stratum corneum: Theory and experiment
  • HIV-1 gp41 six-helix bundle formation occurs rapidly after the engagement of gp120 by CXCR4 in the HIV-1 env-mediated fusion process
  • Time-dependent ultrastructural changes to porcine stratum corneum following an electric pulse
  • Grant reviewer perceptions of the quality, effectiveness, and influence of panel discussion
  • Learning From Peer Review
  • Sphingolipids, cholesterol, and HIV-1: A paradigm in viral fusion
  • C-terminal octylation rescues an inactive T20 mutant. Implications for the mechanism of HIV/simian immunodeficiency virus-induced membrane fusion
  • Sensitivity of HIV-1 to entry inhibitors correlates with envelope/coreceptor affinity, receptor density, and fusion kinetics
  • A pulsed electric field enhances cutaneous delivery of methylene blue in excised full-thickness porcine skin
  • Characterization of electric-pulse-induced permeabilization of porcine skin using surface electrodes
  • A retrospective analysis of the effect of discussion in teleconference and face-to-face scientific peer-review panels.
  • The Influence of Peer Reviewer Expertise on the Evaluation of Research Funding Applications
  • Grant Review Feedback: Appropriateness and Usefulness
  • Rethinking Peer Review
  • Do funding applications where peer reviewers disagree have higher citations? A cross-sectional study
  • Do funding applications where peer reviewers disagree have higher citations? A cross-sectional study [version 2; referees: 2 approved]
  • Risk evaluation in peer review of grant applications
  • External tests of peer review validity with impact measures
  • The Participation and Motivations of Grant Peer Reviewers: A Comprehensive Survey
  • Grant reviewer perceptions of the quality and effectiveness of panel discussion
  • The Participation and Motivations of Grant Peer Reviewers: A Comprehensive Survey
  • Grant Review Feedback: Appropriateness and Usefulness
  • Finding scientific communities in citation graphs: Articles and authors
  • Scientists from Minority-Serving Institutions and Their Participation in Grant Peer Review
  • Representation in BioScience Authorship
  • Peer review: Risk and risk tolerance

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